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Historical Geology


Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
Studies of modern and ancient marine and terrestrial sediments to determine the processes that control the temporal and spatial distribution of different sediment types, their provenance, erosion, transport and deposition.


Depositional Environment

Describes the combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification.



Paleontology is the scientific study of life in the geologic past, based on examination of fossilized remains of once living organisms, such as tracks, bones, teeth, plants, and shells. Fossils are unique, nonrenewable resources that paint a ancient portrait of life on earth.


Earth History
Geologic history of earth, evolution of  the continents, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. The layers of rock at earth’s surface contain evidence of the evolutionary processes undergone by these components of the terrestrial environment during the times at which each layer was formed. By studying this rock record from the very beginning, it is thus possible to trace their development and the resultant changes through time.



Palaeogeography is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.      Palaeogeography can also include the study of human or cultural environments. When the focus is specifically on landforms, the term paleogeomorphology is sometimes used instead. Paleomagnetism, paleobiogeography, and tectonic history are among its main tools.


Paleoclimatology is the study of climates for which direct measurements were not taken. As instrumental records only span a tiny part of Earth’s history, the reconstruction of ancient climate is important to understand natural variation and the evolution of the current climate.


Paleomagnetism is the study of the record of the Earth’s magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.


Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios.


paleoecology Ecology
Paleoecology, the ecology of the past, uses geological and biological evidence from fossil deposits to investigate the past occurrence, distribution, and abundance of different ecological units (species, populations, and communities) on a variety of timescales.