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Pipeline and Fluid Flow Technology

Pipeline and Fluid Flow Technology


Petroleum Refining and Distillation

A crude oil refinery is a group of industrial facilities that turns crude oil and other inputs into finished petroleum products. A refinery’s capacity refers to the maximum amount of crude oil designed to flow into the distillation unit of a refinery, also known as the crude unit. Crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and the distillation process aims to separate this crude oil into broad categories of its component hydrocarbons, or “fractions.” Crude oil is first heated and then put into a distillation column, also known as a still, where different products boil off and are recovered at different temperatures.


Instrumentation and Control

With the increasing use of digital applications in industry, the complexity of industrial systems has increased considerably over the past few decades. Instrumentation & Control systems help meet the growing needs of industrialists for the coordination and security of their facilities. In light of new technological developments, they must also make it easier to gather operational feedback which can be used to improve industrial performance. In a world where everything is connected and vulnerable to attack, and where requirements are increasingly rigorous with respect to security and return on investment, control over automation and surveillance at industrial facilities is now as essential as quality control.



Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum, although many of the same chemical compounds are also obtained from other fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas or from renewable sources such as corn, sugar cane, and other types of biomass. Petrochemical production relies on multi-phase processing of oil and associated petroleum gas. Key raw materials in the petrochemical industry include products of petroleum oil refining. Petrochemical goods include: ethylene, propylene, and benzene. Petrochemical and petroleum products are the second-level products being derived from crude oil after several refining processes.


Safety valves

Safety valves and pressure relief valves are crucial for one main reason: safety. This means safety for the plant and equipment as well as safety for plant personnel and the surrounding environment. Safety valves and pressure relief valves protect vessels, piping systems, and equipment from overpressure, which, if unchecked, can not only damage a system but potentially cause an explosion. Because these valves play such an important role, it’s absolutely essential that the right valve is used every time. A safety valve is designed to open and relieve excess pressure from vessels or equipment and to reclose and prevent the further release of fluid after normal conditions have been restored.


Pipelines are pipes, usually underground, that transport and distribute fluids. When discussing pipelines in an energy context, the fluids are usually either oil, oil products and natural gas. If hydrogen fuel gets extensively developed, pipelines will be needed to transport this secondary fuel. Outside of an energy context, pipelines transport other fluids like water. Oil and gas pipelines form extensive distribution networks providing about 825 000 kilometers of lines in Canada to transport natural gas, liquefied natural gas products, crude oil, and other refined petroleum products. These lines vary in diameter depending on their use, and are generally located underground.


Gas Turbines

A gas turbine is a type of turbine that uses pressurized gas to spin it in order to generate electricity or provide kinetic energy to an airplane or jet. The process to do so is called the Brayton cycle. In all modern gas turbines, the pressurized gas is created by the burning of a fuel like natural gas, kerosene, propane or jet fuel. The heat generated by this fuel expands air which flows through the turbine to supply useful energy. Most gas turbines operate on an open cycle in which air is taken from the atmosphere, compressed in a centrifugal or axial-flow compressor, and then fed into a combustion chamber.



Pipelines are used to transport gas, water, oils, and other liquids from one point to the other. And as all pipes are produced at a fixed length, there is a requirement of welding to join pipes and make kilometers of pipelines. So, pipeline welding is a very important activity in pipeline construction and is always a demanding profession. Pipe and Pipeline welders are required in construction industries, oil and gas fields, water industries, fabrication shops, nuclear energy industries, etc to lay new pipelines or repair an old pipe. Pipeline welding is popular as girth welding which is performed along the circumference of the pipes to be connected. As compared to pipe welding in usual plants, pipeline welding poses various additional challenges. Pipeline welding should conform to the relevant ASME codes like B 31.4, B 31.8, ASME BPVC, etc.