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Basic Geophysics

Basic Geophysics takes us on a journey that shows how the achievements of our predecessors have paved the way for modern exploration seismology. From the ancient Greeks through the Enlightenment to the greats of the contemporary age, the reasoning behind basic principles is explored and clarified. With that foundation, advanced topics are examined.


Applied Geophysics
Applied geophysics is based on physics principles that collect and interpret data on subsurface conditions for practical purposes, including oil and gas exploration, mineral prospecting, geothermal exploration, groundwater exploration, engineering applications, archeological interests, and environmental concerns.


Gravity is a versatile geophysical technique used to detect and identify subsurface bodies and anomalies within the Earth. It is based on the density changes of rock bodies and their effect on the acceleration of gravity.


Magnetic surveys are a geophysical method to image anomalies in the earth’s magnetic field caused by source bodies within the sub-surface. Oil and gas exploration use magnetic anomalies to detect faults and igneous intrusions. … Other uses of magnetics include detecting pipes, buried objects, and archaeological sites.


The seismic survey is one form of geophysical survey that aims at measuring the earth’s properties by means of physical principles. It is based on the theory of elasticity and therefore tries to deduce elastic properties of materials by measuring their response to elastic disturbances called seismic (or elastic) waves.


The electrical geophysical methods are used to determine the electrical resistivity of the earth’s subsurface. thus, electrical methods are employed for those applications in which a knowledge of resistivity or the resistivity distribution will solve or shed light on the problem at hand. The resolution, depth, and areal extent of investigation are functions of the particular electrical method employed.


Well logging is a means of recording the physical, acoustic and electrical properties of the rocks penetrated by a well. It is carried out by service companies, which work under contract for the oil companies. Logging has the advantage that it measures in situ rock properties which cannot be measured in a laboratory from either core samples or cuttings.


The scientific study of the waters of the earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in streams, lakes, and on or below the land surface. In terms of the hydrologic cycle, the scope of hydrology may be defined as that portion of the cycle from precipitation to re-evaporation or return to the water of the seas.